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Expert's view


We are keen on sharing our passion and knowledge on chemical power sources.

In this section you will find some general information related to energy storage.

Chemical power sources

Chemical power sources

Battery energy storage consists in conversion of chemical energy into electric energy due to chemical reactions of active substances that are included therein. That is why batteries belong to chemical power sources.

A set of active substances and electrolyte constitute the basis of chemical power sources. A cell consists of negative and positive plates immersed in an electrolyte. The whole set is contained in a closed case.

The cell functions as a constant current power source. Depending on the type of chemical reaction, you can distinguish:  

  • Primary cell – the energy generation is due to irreversible chemical reaction. The primary cells cannot be recharged.
  • Secondary cell – the energy generation is due to reversible chemical reaction. The secondary cells can be recharged.

Battery marking

Battery marking

Primary or secondary cells have many shapes and parameters. The marking system simplify their identification.

Until October 1990, according to the Polish battery shape marking system the cells had been divided into 3 groups:


  • Cylindrical cells marked with the R letter (i.e. R03, R6);
  • Button cells marked with the F letter (i.e. F22);
  • Prismatic cells marked with the S letter (i.e. S6).

After changes in regulation in October 1999, the system divides cells into 2 groups of shapes:

  • Cylindrical cells marked with the R letter
  • Non-cylindrical cells marked with the P letter

Moreover, the most popular cylindrical batteries and cells are marked by capital letters, i.e.:

  • AAA=R03;
  • AA=R06;
  • C=R14;
  • D=R20.


Cell overcharging

See what happens if you overcharge your Li-ion battery.